Learn Roman numerals

Count in Roman numbers. What is the largest number you can write? Print out these charts to learn.

1 = I
2 = II
3 = III
4 = IV = IIII
5 = V
6 = VI
7 = VII
8 = VIII = IIX
9 = IX = VIIII
10 = X
11 = XI
12 = XII
13 = XIII
14 = XIV
15 = XV
16 = XVI
17 = XVII
18 = XVIII
19 = XIX
20 = XX
21 = XXI
22 = XXII
23 = XXIII
24 = XXIV
25 = XXV
26 = XXVI
27 = XXVII
28 = XXVIII
29 = XXIX
30 = XXX
31 = XXXI
32 = XXXII
33 = XXXIII
40 = XL
50 = L
60 = LX
70 = LXX
80 = LXXX
90 = XC
99 = XCIX
100 = C
200 = CC
300 = CCC
400 = CD
500 = D
600 = DC
700 = DCC
800 = DCCC
900 = CM
1000 = M

Roman numerals are constructed using additive and subtractive principles.

Addition is the main rule. Simply add up the digits. Example: XXI = 10+10+1 = 21.

Subtraction happens when a smaller digit comes before a larger digit. In that case, deduct the smaller digit from the larger digit. Example: IX = 10−1 = 9. The usual subtractive combinations are: IV (4), IX (9), XL (40), XC (90), CD (400) and CM (900). Note that other combinations are not generally used, so 99 is not IC, but XCIX = 100−10 + 10−1 = 99.

Subtraction is a shorthand for four successive digits. Thus, IIII=IV, XXXX=XL and so on. Both forms are possible.

Use Roman numeral converter to learn how addition and subtraction work. The converter splits up a Roman numeral to its parts and teaches you how to decode it letter by letter.

Number zero does not exist in Roman numerals.

Large Roman numerals
Thousands
1000 = M
2000 = MM
3000 = MMM
4000 = MMMM
5000 = V
6000 = VM
7000 = VMM
8000 = VMMM
9000 = VMMMM
10000 = X
20000 = XX
30000 = XXX
40000 = XL
50000 = L
60000 = LX
70000 = LXX
80000 = LXXX
90000 = XC
100000 = C = I
200000 = CC = II
300000 = CCC = III
400000 = CD = IV
500000 = D = V
600000 = DC = VI
700000 = DCC = VII
800000 = DCCC = VIII
900000 = CM = IX
Millions
1000000 = M = X
2000000 = MM = XX
3000000 = MMM = XXX
4000000 = IV = XL
5000000 = V = L
6000000 = VI = LX
7000000 = VII = LXX
8000000 = VIII = LXXX
9000000 = IX = XC
10000000 = X = C
20000000 = XX = CC
30000000 = XXX = CCC
40000000 = XL = CD
50000000 = L = D
60000000 = LX = DC
70000000 = LXX = DCC
80000000 = LXXX = DCCC
90000000 = XC = CM
100000000 = C = M
200000000 = CC = MM
300000000 = CCC = MMM
400000000 = CD
500000000 = D
600000000 = DC
700000000 = DCC
800000000 = DCCC
900000000 = CM
Milliards
(billions)
1000000000 = M
2000000000 = MM
3000000000 = MMM
nn = 1000  nn
nn = 100,000  nn
nn = 1,000,000  nn

In order to write large numerals, one draws lines above or around numbers. This causes multiplication as per the table above.

Large Roman numerals, archaic
Hundreds
500   = IↃ = D
Thousands
1000 = CIↃ = ↀ
2000 = CIↃCIↃ
3000 = CIↃCIↃCIↃ
4000 = CIↃIↃↃ
5000 = IↃↃ = ↁ
6000 = IↃↃCIↃ
7000 = IↃↃCIↃCIↃ
8000 = IↃↃCIↃCIↃCIↃ
9000 = CIↃCCIↃↃ
10000 = CCIↃↃ = ↂ
20000 = CCIↃↃCCIↃↃ
30000 = CCIↃↃCCIↃↃCCIↃↃ
40000 = CCIↃↃIↃↃↃ
50000 = IↃↃↃ
60000 = IↃↃↃCCIↃↃ
70000 = IↃↃↃCCIↃↃCCIↃↃ
80000 = IↃↃↃCCIↃↃCCIↃↃCCIↃↃ
90000 = CCIↃↃCCCIↃↃↃ
100000 = CCCIↃↃↃ



500000 = IↃↃↃↃ
Million
1000000 = CCCCIↃↃↃↃ

There are archaic forms of Roman numbers starting from 500. The system starts with CIↃ being one thousand. Adding C and multiplies the figure by 10. Halving the numeral (leave out the C's on the left) divides the number by 2. Thus, CCIↃↃ is 101000 = 10000 and IↃↃ is a half of that, 5000.

The archaic forms can be written in two alternative ways, as shown in the image below.

Use Roman numeral converter to understand modern and archaic Roman numerals. The converter shows you letter by letter what a Roman numeral is made of.

See also: Roman numerals complete list (1-3,999,999,999)

©Tuomas Salste